Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health
Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health

Depression and other psychological / mental ailments

Different psychological and mental problems, same causes

What is depression?

Incidence of depression

Symptoms of depression and some other psychological and mental ailments

Consequences of many psychological and mental ailments

Root / primary causes of psychological and mental ailments

Secondary causes of psychological and mental ailments

Risk factors for psychological and mental ailments

Prevention / remedies / treatment / recovery from psychological and mental ailments

References

Different psychological and mental problems, same causes

Most mental and psychological ailments are caused by the same primary causes, secondary causes, and risk factors listed below. The ailments include:

What is depression?

Depression can vary from a slight and temporary feeling of low mood, through to major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is also known as clinical depression, major depression, recurrent depressive disorder, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder.

Clinical depression is a mental disorder that can seem all-encompassing to the sufferer. It is a disabling condition that adversely affects personal relationships and family, social, work or school life, sleeping and eating habits, and general health and wellbeing.

Incidence of depression

8-12% of people worldwide suffer from major depression at some time in their lives. This ranges from a low of 3% in Japan to a high of 12% in the USA. (15)

Major depression is about twice as common in women as in men.

The most common age of onset is 20-30, with a peak between 30-40.

Symptoms of depression and some other psychological and mental ailments

Consequences of many psychological and mental ailments

Root / primary causes of psychological and mental ailments

  1. Psychological stressors. Regular exposure to stresses that exceed the ability to cope, such as social or business rejection, a bad boss, an abusive spouse or family member, or any other repeated stress. Over-reaction or not reacting appropriately to life's stresses such as bereavement, loss of job or not getting what you had hoped for. (30)

    Recurrent negative thinking leading to obsessive-compulsive thoughts or overreaction to trauma, pain (2) or other negative and stressful life events (10), and the lack of skills, resilience or assistance to cope. If the negative thinking continues, it can become self-sustaining, manifesting as obsessive-compulsive behaviour (obsessive compulsive disorder). Continual thinking in a particular way reinforces itself and physically changes the brain (research shows that the brain is highly plastic).

    Mentally healthy people are able to cope with their stresses, they have:
    • Outlets for their stress such as going for a walk or a jog, meditating, or going to a safe and serene place. Unfortunately many outlets can turn into harmful or compulsive addictions, such as drugs, drink, overeating, shopping, gambling and so on.
    • Control over what is happening. They are able to identify their stressors and respond in appropriate ways.
    • A realistic view of the risks involved. Stressful events may be random and unpredictable, but mentally strong people are aware of life's risks and are not completely helpless.
    • Support. Partner, parents, family, close friends, other friends and acquaintances, professional support, support amenities from locality, workplace and government - these all help to cope with stress. In contrast, isolation and lack of personal support increase the feeling of helplessness.
  2. Intra-cellular infection with microorganisms. (30, 36) Usually a virus, small bacteria or protozoa. These parasites live inside cells, and some shed their own cellular walls to better hide from the immune system. Thousands of these microorganisms can live inside a single cell; eventually the cell walls burst and they spread to a new cellular host. These pathogens mostly affect the brain, nerves and immune system rather than other parts of the body. For example, Toxoplasma gondii infection is associated with schizophrenia, mood disorders and cognitive impairment. (19) Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in the brains of nearly all multiple sclerosis patients, and the majority of Alzheimer's patients.

    A variety of spirochaete type bacteria and co-infected biofilms which cause Lyme disease are also responsible for a wide range of neuropathies. Some kind of bacterial infection with biofilm is usually present in autopsies of patients suffering from the ailments on this web page.

    People with periodontitis (gum disease) have a substantially higher risk of Alzheimer's disease, according to a 2016 study (33).
  3. Bacterial imbalance. Loss of healthy bacteria, and the proliferation of other bacteria and micro-organisms. This is in addition to the intra-cellular infection of brain and nerve tissue cited under the Primary Causes above.
    Note that most autistic children have digestive disorders and most schizophrenics have digestive problems that started as children. (10, 30, 36)
  4. Toxins. Accumulation of a wide variety of toxins to which the brain and nervous system are exposed. Foods are the most common and major source of toxins, usually accompanied by a wide variety of digestive problems.

    A range of estrogen-like hormones and chemicals (xenoestrogens) in the environment cause a wide variety of hormonal problems.

    A huge range of other toxic pollutants in our homes, everyday environment, personal care products and water are so diverse and so individual to each person, that it is difficult to connect the dots between the toxin and the ailment.

    One of the worst toxins is bromine, a widespread cause of psychoses and many psychological disorders. Bromides are used in soft drinks (colas, sodas, sports drinks), white flour and processed foods, and many pharmaceuticals and household products. The antidote to bromine is Iodine

    Another common toxic halogen that is put in the water supply in America and countries closely aligned with the USA is fluorine. Fluorides are also added to many common household products, especially toothpaste. (22) See fluoride removal.

    Yet another toxic cause of autism and mental ailments is Glyphosate or Roundup. Studies examined soy and many other common foods containing Monsanto's Roundup, and found an irrefutable correlation. (21)

Secondary causes of psychological and mental ailments

Risk factors for psychological and mental ailments

Prevention / remedies / treatment / recovery from psychological and mental ailments

References

1. Kessler RC, Nelson CB, McGonagle KA, Liu J, Swartz M, Blazer DG. Comorbidity of DSM-III-R major depressive disorder in the general population: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 1996 Jun;(30):17-30.

2. Bair MJ, Robinson RL, Katon W, Kroenke K. Depression and pain comorbidity: a literature review. Arch Intern Med. 2003 Nov 10;163(20):2433-45.

3. Schulman J and Shapiro BA. Depression and Cardiovascular Disease: What Is the Correlation? Psychiatric Times. 2008;25(9).

4. Kendler KS, Gatz M, Gardner CO, Pedersen NL. A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;163(1):109-14.

5. Cutter WJ, Norbury R, Murphy DG. Oestrogen, brain function, and neuropsychiatric disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2003 Jul;74(7):837-40.

6. Douma SL, Husband C, O'Donnell ME, Barwin BN, Woodend AK. Estrogen-related mood disorders: reproductive life cycle factors. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2005 Oct-Dec;28(4):364-75.

7. McCullough, Michael; Larson, David. Religion and depression: a review of the literature. 1 June 1999, Twin Research (Australian Academic Press) 2 (2): 126-136. doi:10.1375/136905299320565997. PMID 10480747.

8. Raphael B. Unmet Need for Prevention. In: Andrews G, Henderson S (eds). Unmet Need in Psychiatry: Problems, Resources, Responses. Cambridge University Press; 2000. ISBN 0-521-66229-X. p. 138-39.

9. Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, Miller AH, Nemeroff CB. The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008;33(6):693-710. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2008.03.008. PMID 18602762.

10. Kessler, RC. The effects of stressful life events on depression. Annual revue of Psychology. 1997;48:191-214. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.191. PMID 9046559.

11. Kendler, KS. Life event dimensions of loss, humiliation, entrapment, and danger in the prediction of onsets of major depression and generalized anxiety. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2003;60(8):789-796. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.8.789. PMID 12912762.

12. Slavich GM, Thornton T, Torres LD, Monroe SM, Gotlib IH. Targeted rejection predicts hastened onset of major depression. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. 2009;28:223-243. doi:10.1521/jscp.2009.28.2.223.

13. Posternak MA, Miller I. Untreated short-term course of major depression: A meta-analysis of outcomes from studies using wait-list control groups. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001;66(2-3):139-46. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00304-9. PMID 11578666.

14. Rush AJ. The varied clinical presentations of major depressive disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2007;68(Supplement 8):4-10. PMID 17640152.

15. Andrade L, Caraveo-A. Epidemiology of major depressive episodes: Results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2003;12(1):3-21. doi:10.1002/mpr.138. PMID 12830306.

16. Marc G. Berman et al. Interacting with nature improves cognition and affect for individuals with depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 2012.

17. Berman, M.G., Jonides, J., Kaplan, S. The Cognitive Benefits of Interacting with Nature. 2008. Psychological Science 19(12):1207-1212

18. Ruth Ann Atchley, David L. Strayer, Paul Atchley. Creativity in the Wild: Improving Creative Reasoning through Immersion in Natural Settings. 12 December 2012, PLoS ONE 7(12): e51474. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051474.

19. Fekadu A. et al. Toxoplasmosis as a cause for behaviour disorders - overview of evidence and mechanisms. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2010 June; 57(2):105-13.

20. Dae-Wook Kang, Jin Gyoon Park, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Garrick Wallstrom, Joshua LaBaer, James B. Adams, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown. Reduced Incidence of Prevotella and Other Fermenters in Intestinal Microflora of Autistic Children. 3 July 2013. dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0068322

21. MIT researcher Stephanie Seneff has a summary web page people.csail.mit.edu/seneff/ with links to many articles and presentations.

22. Ashley J Malin, Christine Till. Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association. Environmental Health, 27 February 2015, 14:17. doi:10.1186/s12940-015-0003-1.

23. Anoop S V Shah, Kuan Ken Lee, David A McAllister, Amanda Hunter, Harish Nair, William Whiteley, Jeremy P Langrish, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills. Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2015;350:h1295, Published 24 March 2015.

24. Melinda C Power, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Olivia I Okereke, Francine Laden, Marc G Weisskopf. The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study. BMJ 2015;350:h1111, Published 24 March 2015.

25. Elwood P, et al. Healthy lifestyles reduce the incidence of chronic disease and dementia: Evidence from the Caerphlly Cohort Study. PLos ONE 8, no 12(2013).

26. Ahlskog et al. Physical exercise as a preventive or disease-modifying treatment of dementia and brain aging. Mayo Clinic proceedings 86, no 9 (2011):876-84.

27. Lambert G W, et al. Effect of sunlight and season on seratonin turnover in the brain. Lancet 360, no. 9348 (2002):1840-42.

28. Fasano, Alessio. Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, Boston. Gluten sensitivity can manifest in many different ways, often mimicking other disorders.

29. Hadjivassiliou, Marios, et al. Does Cryptic Gluten Sensitivity Play a Part in Neurological Illness? Lancet 347, no. 8998 (10 February 1996): 369-71.

30. Premysl Bercik, G. De Palma, P. Blennerhassett, J. Lu, Y. Deng, A. J. Park, W. Green, E. Denou, M. A. Silva, A. Santacruz, Y. Sanz, M. G. Surette, E. F. Verdu, S. M. Collins. Microbiota and host determinants of behavioural phenotype in maternally separated mice. Nature Communications, July, 2015. 10.1038/ncomms8735.

31. Michelle Carlson et al. Civic Engagement May Stave Off Brain Atrophy, Improve Memory. Meaningful activities experienced with others may reverse the normal brain shrinkage associated with the aging process. Retrieved online 14 Apr 2015. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

32. Kazuki Hyodo, Ippeita Dan, Yasushi Kyutoku, Kazuya Suwabe, Kyeongho Byun, Genta Ochi, Morimasa Kato, Hideaki Soya. The association between aerobic fitness and cognitive function in older men mediated by frontal lateralization. NeuroImage, Volume 125, 15 January 2016, Pages 291-300.

33. Mark Ide , Marina Harris , Annette Stevens , Rebecca Sussams , Viv Hopkins , David Culliford , James Fuller , Paul Ibbett , Rachel Raybould , Rhodri Thomas , Ursula Puenter , Jessica Teeling , V. Hugh Perry , Clive Holmes. Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer's Disease. Published 10 March 2016. PLoS ONE 11(3): e0151081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151081.

34. Raji CA, Merrill DA, Eyre H, Mallam S, Torosyan N, Erickson KI, Lopez OL, Becker JT, Carmichael OT, Gach HM, Thompson PM, Longstreth WT, Kuller LH. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Alzheimers Dis. 11 March 2016, viewed online.

35. Gallup Gordon G, Burch Rebecca L, Platek Steven. Does Semen Have Antidepressant Properties? Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 31(3), 289-93, June 2002.

36. Giada De Palma, Michael D. J. Lynch, Jun Lu, Vi T. Dang, Yikang Deng, Jennifer Jury, Genevieve Umeh, Pedro M. Miranda, Marc Pigrau Pastor, Sacha Sidani, Maria Ines Pinto-Sanchez, Vivek Philip, Peter G. McLean, Moreno-Gabriel Hagelsieb, Michael G. Surette, Gabriela E. Bergonzelli, Elena F. Verdu, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Josh D. Neufeld, Stephen M. Collins, Premysl Bercik. Transplantation of fecal microbiota from patients with irritable bowel syndrome alters gut function and behavior in recipient mice. Science Translational Medicine 01 Mar 2017: Vol. 9, Issue 379. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf6397.

37. Matthew P. Pase, Jayandra J. Himali, Alexa S. Beiser, Hugo J. Aparicio, Claudia L. Satizabal, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Sudha Seshadri, Paul F. Jacques. Sugar and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and the Risks of Incident Stroke and Dementia. Stroke. 2017;STROKEAHA.116.016027. Published 20 April 2017.

38. Joseph Michael Northey, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kate Louise Pumpa, Disa Jane Smee, Ben Rattray. Exercise interventions for cognitive function in adults older than 50: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 24 April 2017. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096587.

39. Veech RL. The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2004 Mar;70(3):309-19.

40. Veech RL, Chance B, Kashiwaya Y, Lardy HA, Cahill GF Jr. Ketone bodies, potential therapeutic uses. IUBMB Life. 2001 Apr;51(4):241-7.