Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health
Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health

Coronary heart disease

What is heart disease?

Incidence of heart disease

Why is heart disease so common?

Angina

Heart attack

Heart arrhythmia

Causes of heart disease and risk factors

Prevention / remedies / treatment for heart disease

References

What is heart disease?

Heart disease (coronary heart disease, CHD) is the broad name given to a number of different diseases affecting the heart. They include heart attack, angina, arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat), heart palpitation, high blood pressure and other heart problems.

Cardiovascular diseases are those diseases that also involve the blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins), in addition to the heart.

Incidence of heart disease

Heart disease is the number one killer in the developed Western world, with more than a quarter of all people dying from it. Up until the late 90's the rate was increasing, but in the USA (and most other Western countries), heart disease rates remained stable between 1999-2009. (1) Australian deaths from heart disease have decreased over the past decade, accounting for 15% of all deaths in 2010, compared with 20% in 2001, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics. 1.4m Australians are diagnosed with CHD, which severely affects their quality of life.

Why is heart disease so common?

In the early 20th century, around 1900, coronary heart disease was so rare that it was not even described in medical text books. The few cases that occurred were a medical rarity, and most doctors had never observed a single case in their whole career.

You would think that when an uncommon ailment turns into the leading cause of death, it would be easy to spot the cause. Well it is, but not for the average person. Many vested interests deliberately put out deceptive information to keep things just the way they are. The food industries want you to believe that a low-cholesterol, low-fat diet based on grains and polyunsaturated vegetable oils will protect you from CHD. The pharmaceutical drug companies want you to buy (unnecessary (10, 11)) statins and other cholesterol-lowering drugs for the rest of your life. Powerful decision makers in the medical associations, the giant food industries, the pharmaceutical companies, and especially in their regulatory bodies have strong financial incentives to hide the simple causes of heart and vascular disease.

Angina

Angina pectoris. Angina occurs when a heart artery is narrowed, but not completely closed. Physical activity causes chest and other pains that stop when the person rests.

Heart attack

Heart attack (myocardial infarction). A heart attack occurs when a heart artery is completely blocked and the supply of blood to a heart muscle stops. This causes the death of that part of the heart fed by that particular artery.

A heart attack is a medical emergency. In the first 2-3 hours it kills about half of those who have one.

A heart attack can occur in a person who has never had heart symptoms, or in a person who has suffered from angina for years. Symptoms usually include severe chest pain, nausea, cold sweat, fear and shock. Those who survive are left with a scar in the heart muscle that weakens the heart, and may lead to arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) and other complications.

Heart arrhythmia

Arrhythmia (cardiac dysrhythmia, irregular heartbeat, fibrillation) is when the heart beats too fast, too slow, or in an irregular or erratic manner.

Causes of heart disease and risk factors

Prevention / remedies / treatment for heart disease

References

1. Health, United States, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 16 January 2013.

2. Understand Your Risk of Heart Attack. American Heart Association, online. Retrieved 18 January 2013.

3. Kvan E., Pettersen K.I., Sandvik L., Reikvam A. High mortality in diabetic patient with acute myocardial infarction: cardiovascular co-morbidities contribute most to the high risk. 2007, Int J Cardiol 121: 184-188.

4. Norhammar A., Malmberg K., Diderhol E., Lagerqvist B., Lindahl B., Ryde et al. Diabetes mellitus: the major risk factor in unstable coronary artery disease even after consideration of the extent of coronary artery disease and benefits of revascularization. 2004, J. Am Coll Cardiol 43: 585-591.

5. Mischel NA, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Mueller PJ. Physical (in)activity-dependent structural plasticity in bulbospinal catecholaminergic neurons of rat rostral ventrolateral medulla. J Comp Neurol. 2014 Feb 15;522(3):499-513. doi: 10.1002/cne.23464.

6. Anoop S V Shah, Kuan Ken Lee, David A McAllister, Amanda Hunter, Harish Nair, William Whiteley, Jeremy P Langrish, David E Newby, Nicholas L Mills. Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2015;350:h1295, Published 24 March 2015.

7. Melinda C Power, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jaime E Hart, Olivia I Okereke, Francine Laden, Marc G Weisskopf. The relation between past exposure to fine particulate air pollution and prevalent anxiety: observational cohort study. BMJ 2015;350:h1111, Published 24 March 2015.

8. Ahmed Tawako, Amorina Ishai, Richard AP Takx, Amparo L Figueroa, Abdelrahman Ali, Yannick Kaiser, Quynh A Truong, Chloe JE Solomon, Claudia Calcagno, Venkatesh Mani, Cheuk Y Tang, Willem JM Mulder, James W Murrough, Udo Hoffmann, Matthias Nahrendorf, Lisa M Shin, Zahi A Fayad, Roger K Pitman. Relation between resting amygdalar activity and cardiovascular events: a longitudinal and cohort study. The Lancet. Published online 11 January 2017.

9. Aseem Malhotra, Rita F Redberg, Pascal Meier. Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions. Br J Sports Med Published Online First: 25 April 2017. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097285.

10. Rafel Ramos, Marc Comas-Cufi, Ruth Marti-Lluch, Elisabeth Ballo, Anna Ponjoan, Lia Alves-Cabratosa, Jordi Blanch, Jaume Marrugat, Roberto Elosua, Maria Grau, Marc Elosua-Bayes, Luis Garcia-Ortiz, Maria Garcia-Gil. Statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality in old and very old adults with and without type 2 diabetes: retrospective cohort study. BMJ 2018;362:k3359. Published 5 September 2018.

11. Ravnskov U, de Lorgeril M, Diamond DM, Hama R, Hamazaki T, Hammarskjold B, Hynes N, Kendrick M, Langsjoen PH, Mascitelli L, McCully KS, Okuyama H, Rosch PJ, Schersten T, Sultan S, Sundberg R. LDL-C Does Not Cause Cardiovascular Disease: a comprehensive review of current literature. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 10 September 2018 (online epub). doi: 10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391.