Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health
Grow Youthful: How to Slow Your Aging and Enjoy Extraordinary Health

Diabetes

What is diabetes?

Type I diabetes

Type II diabetes

Gestational diabetes

Long term complications from diabetes

Prevention / remedies / treatment for diabetes

References

What is diabetes?

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition in which a person has a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It is caused because either the body doesn't produce enough insulin, or because body cells don't properly respond to the insulin that is produced. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas which tells cells to absorb glucose and store energy. If glucose is not stored it remains in the blood (hyperglycemia) and gradually causes complications.

The optimal blood glucose range is 85-105 mg/dl, rising to the 120-140 after eating a meal and back into the optimal range within a couple of hours. Doctors regard the normal fasting blood sugar level as 80-120 mg/dL. A typical diabetic's level is 160 mg/dL two hours after a meal containing carbohydrates.

Over 6% of the world's population has diabetes, and it is "one of the biggest health catastrophes the world has ever witnessed". (5) It is not only a rich country disease, and is rapidly increasing in developing countries. in 2000 the five countries with the greatest number of people with diabetes were India (31.7 million), China (20.8 million), USA (17.7 million), Indonesia (8.4 million), and Japan (6.8 million). (6)

It is recognized as a global epidemic by the World Health Organization. (7) It causes massive human suffering, disability and socioeconomic cost.

Diabetes is a preventable disease caused by modern diet and lifestyle.

Type one diabetes

Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent or juvenile diabetes): the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin. This causes an increased level of glucose in the blood and urine.

This condition is eventually fatal unless treated with insulin. Usually the person injects insulin for the rest of their life. When managed correctly, the person can remain healthy. However, with imperfect management similar symptoms to type 2 diabetes can occur. In addition, the sufferer has an increased risk of vehicle and other accidents.

Incidence of type 1 diabetes

The incidence ranges from 0.8-1.7% in the USA and northern Europe to 3.5% in Scandinavia to a low of 0.1% in Japan and China. (1) Less than 10% of all cases of diabetes are type I.

Causes of type 1 diabetes

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

The hallmark symptoms of type 1 diabetes are listed below. See also symptoms of type 2 diabetes.

Type two diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (noninsulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes) is a dietary and lifestyle disease. It occurs when the cells in the body fail to properly respond to insulin (insulin resistance).

Incidence of type 2 diabetes

Approximately 90-95% of all cases of diabetes are Type 2. It is increasing at an alarming rate. In the USA, 11% of people over the age of 20 have Type 2 diabetes, and 24% of those over the age of 60 (Source: CDC). It is estimated that 28% of people with diabetes in the USA do not realise that they have the disease, leading to terrible consequences five years later - loss of limbs, blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, strokes and nerve damage. Diabetes used to be an adult disease, but now it is also common in children.

Two thirds of the population suffers from metabolic syndrome, sometimes referred to as pre-diabetes, with symptoms of aches, pains, tiredness, a tendency to overweight and a general feeling of malaise. Diabetes has increased in line with obesity. It is also increasingly diagnosed in children, again in parallel with obesity.

Causes of type 2 diabetes

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

In the first year or two, there may be few symptoms.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition in which occurs in pregnant women who have not previously been diagnosed with high blood glucose levels. The insulin receptors on cells do not function properly. If affect about 3-10% of pregnancies, and is most common in the third trimester. It usually has few obvious symptoms, and usually resolves after delivery.

However, the infant is at increased risk of problems such as being large for gestational age (which may lead to delivery complications), low blood sugar, jaundice and an increased risk of obesity and diabetes later in life.

GDM can be treated with the same recommendations, including diet and exercise, as type 2 diabetes.

Long term complications from diabetes

Prevention / remedies / treatment for diabetes

References

1. Kasper, Dennis L; Braunwald, Eugene; Fauci, Anthony; et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.) 2005, New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-139140-1.

2. Izzedine, H; Launay-Vacher, V, Deybach, C, Bourry, E, Barrou, B, Deray, G. Drug-induced diabetes mellitus. November 2005, Expert opinion on drug safety 4 (6): 1097-109. doi:10.1517/14740338.4.6.1097. PMID 16255667.

3. Sampson, UK; Linton, MF, Fazio, S. Are statins diabetogenic? July 2011, Current opinion in cardiology 26 (4): 342-7. doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e3283470359. PMC 3341610. PMID 21499090.

4. Shoback, edited by David G. Gardner, Dolores. Greenspan's basic & clinical endocrinology (9th ed.) 2011. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. pp. Chapter 17. ISBN 0-07-162243-8.

5. Meetoo D, McGovern P, Safadi R. An epidemiological overview of diabetes across the world. Br J Nurs. 2007 Sep 13-27;16(16):1002-7.

6. Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, King H. Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. May 2004, Diabetes Care 27 (5): 1047-53. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.5.1047. PMID 15111519.

7. Diabetes Fact sheet No. 312. World Health Organization. Aug 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.

8. OMIM. DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT; IDDM. Retrieved 4 December 2012.

9. Knip, M.; Veijola, R.; Virtanen, S. M.; Hyoty, H.; Vaarala, O.; Akerblom, H. K. Environmental Triggers and Determinants of Type 1 Diabetes. 2005, Diabetes 54: S125-S136. doi:10.2337/diabetes.54.suppl_2.S125. PMID 16306330.

10. Singleton JR et al. Increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance in patients with painful sensory neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 2001 Aug; 24(8):1448-53.

11. Ziegler D. et al. Prevalence of polyneuropathy in pre-diabetics and diabetes is associated with abdominal obesity and macroangiopathy: the MONICA/KORA Augsburg Surveys S2 and S3. Diabetes Care. 2008 Mar; 31(3):464-9.

12. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group (UKPDS). Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. UKPDS 33. Lancet. 1998 Sept 12; 352(9131):837-53.

13. Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bingham S, Luben R, Welch A, Day N. Association of hemoglobin A1c with cardiovascular disease and mortality in adults: the European prospective investigation into cancer in Norfolk. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Sep 21;141(6):413-20.

14. Perez-Pozo SE, Schold J, Nakagawa T, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ, Lillo JL. Excessive fructose intake induces the features of metabolic syndrome in healthy adult men: role of uric acid in the hypertensive response. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Mar;34(3):454-61. Epub 2009 Dec 22.

15. Johnson RJ, Perez-Pozo SE, Sautin YY, Manitius J, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Feig DI, Shafiu M, Segal M, Glassock RJ, Shimada M, Roncal C, Nakagawa T. Hypothesis: could excessive fructose intake and uric acid cause type 2 diabetes? Endocr Rev. 2009 Feb;30(1):96-116. Epub 2009 Jan 16.

16. Bray GA. How bad is fructose? Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;86(4):895-6.

17. Nita G Forouhi, Fumiaki Imamura, Laura O'Connor, Zheng Ye, Jaakko Mursu, Yasuaki Hayashino, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. BMJ 2015;351:h3576 (Published 21 July 2015).

18. Vrieze A, Van Nood E, Holleman F, Salojarvi J, Kootte RS, Bartelsman JF, Dallinga-Thie GM, Ackermans MT, Serlie MJ, Oozeer R, Derrien M, Druesne A, Van Hylckama Vlieg JE, Bloks VW, Groen AK, Heilig HG, Zoetendal EG, Stroes ES, de Vos WM, Hoekstra JB, Nieuwdorp M. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2012 Oct;143(4):913-6.e7. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2012.06.031. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

19. Michal M. Poplawski, Jason W. Mastaitis, Fumiko Isoda, Fabrizio Grosjean, Feng Zheng, Charles V. Mobbs. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet. Published: 20 April 2011. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018604.

20. Michal M. Poplawski, Jason W. Mastaitis, Fumiko Isoda, Fabrizio Grosjean, Feng Zheng, Charles V. Mobbs. Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet. Published: 20 April 2011. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0018604.

21. Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, Bernstein RK, Fine EJ, Westman EC, Accurso A, Frassetto L, Gower BA, McFarlane SI, Nielsen JV, Krarup T, Saslow L, Roth KS, Vernon MC, Volek JS, Wilshire GB, Dahlqvist A, Sundberg R, Childers A, Morrison K, Manninen AH, Dashti HM, Wood RJ, Wortman J, Worm N. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition. 2015 Jan;31(1):1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011. Epub 2014 Jul 16.